Abstract: 
We introduce the adaptive neighborhood graph as a data structure for modeling a smooth manifold M embedded in some (potentially very highdimensional) Euclidean space ℝd. We assume that M is known to us only through a finite sample P ⊂ M, as it is often the case in applications. The adaptive neighborhood graph is a geometric graph on P. Its complexity is at most min{2O(k)(n, n2}, where n = P and k = dim M, as opposed to the n⌈d/2⌉ complexity of the Delaunay triangulation, which is often used to model manifolds. We show that we can provably correctly infer the connectivity of M and the dimension of M from the adaptive neighborhood graph provided a certain standard sampling condition is fulfilled. The running time of the dimension detection algorithm is d2O(k7 log k) for each connected component of M. If the dimension is considered constant, this is a constanttime operation, and the adaptive neighborhood graph is of linear size. Moreover, the exponential dependence of the constants is only on the intrinsic dimension k, not on the ambient dimension d. This is of particular interest if the codimension is high, i.e., if k is much smaller than d, as is the case in many applications. The adaptive neighborhood graph also allows us to approximate the geodesic distances between the points in P.
