Proton translocating transhydrogenase and NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases operate in a substrate cycle which contributes to fine regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mitochondria Journal Article


Author(s): Sazanov, Leonid A; Jackson, Julie B
Article Title: Proton translocating transhydrogenase and NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases operate in a substrate cycle which contributes to fine regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mitochondria
Affiliation
Abstract: H+-transhydrogenase (H+-Thase) and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) are very active in animal mitochondria but their physiological function is only poorly understood. This is especially so in the case of the heart and muscle, where there are no major consumers of NADPH. We propose here that H+-Thase and NADP-ICDH have a combined function in the fine regulation of the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, providing enhanced sensitivy to changes in energy demand. This is achieved through cycling of substrates by NAD-linked ICDH, NADP-linked ICDH and H+-Thase. It is proposed that NAD-ICDH operates in the forward direction of the TCA cycle, but NADP-ICDH is driven in reverse by elevated levels of NADPH resulting from the action of the transmembrane proton electrochemical potential gradient (Δp) on H+-Thase. This has the effect of increasing the sensitivity to allosteric modifiers of NAD-ICDH (NADH, ADP, ATP, Ca2+ etc), potentially giving rise to large changes in the net flux from iso-citrate to α-ketoglutarate. Furthermore, changes in the level of Δp resulting from changes in the demand for ATP would, via H+-Thase, shift the redox state of the NADP pool and this, in turn, would lead to a change in the rate of the reaction catalysed by NADP-ICDH and hence to an additional and complementary effect on the net metabolic flux from isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. Other consequences of this substrate cycle are, (i) the production of heat at the expense of Δp, which may contribute to thermoregulation in the animal, and (ii) an increased rate of dissipation of Δp (leak).
Keywords: Futile cycle; Mitochondrion; Regulation; Tricarboxylic acid cycle
Journal Title: FEBS Letters
Volume: 344
Issue 2-3
ISSN: 0014-5793
Publisher: Elsevier  
Date Published: 1994-05-16
Start Page: 109
End Page: 116
DOI: 10.1016/0014-5793(94)00370-X
Open access: no