Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster Journal Article

Author(s): Carvalho, Antonio B; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G
Article Title: Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster
Affiliation IST Austria
Abstract: Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes.
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster; FDY; PacBio; Vig2; Y chromosome
Journal Title: PNAS
Volume: 112
Issue 40
ISSN: 1091-6490
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences  
Date Published: 2015-10-06
Start Page: 12450
End Page: 12455
Sponsor: This work was supported by grants from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), FAPERJ, and CAPES (to A.B.C.), and National Institutes of Health Grant R01 GM64590 (to A.G.C. and A.B.C.).
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1516543112
Notes: We thank M. Vibranovski, C. Bergman, and the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project for access to unpublished data; M. Vibranovski, R. Hoskins, S. Celniker, C. Kennedy, J. Carlson, S. Galasinski, B. Wakimoto, J. Yasuhara, G. Sutton, M. Kuhner, J. Felsenstein, and C. Santos for help in various steps of the work; and B. Bitner-Mathe, R. Ventura, the members of the A.B.C. and A.G.C. laboratories, and two reviewers for many valuable comments on the manuscript.
Open access: yes (repository)