Cell polarity in cerebral cortex development - cellular architecture shaped by biochemical networks Journal Article

Author(s): Hansen, Andi H; Duellberg, Christian; Mieck, Christine; Loose, Martin; Hippenmeyer, Simon
Article Title: Cell polarity in cerebral cortex development - cellular architecture shaped by biochemical networks
Affiliation IST Austria
Abstract: The human cerebral cortex is the seat of our cognitive abilities and composed of an extraordinary number of neurons, organized in six distinct layers. The establishment of specific morphological and physiological features in individual neurons needs to be regulated with high precision. Impairments in the sequential developmental programs instructing corticogenesis lead to alterations in the cortical cytoarchitecture which is thought to represent the major underlying cause for several neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases. In this review we discuss the role of cell polarity at sequential stages during cortex development. We first provide an overview of morphological cell polarity features in cortical neural stem cells and newly-born postmitotic neurons. We then synthesize a conceptual molecular and biochemical framework how cell polarity is established at the cellular level through a break in symmetry in nascent cortical projection neurons. Lastly we provide a perspective how the molecular mechanisms applying to single cells could be probed and integrated in an in vivo and tissue-wide context.
Keywords: Cerebral cortex, polarity, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon, dendrite, break in symmetry, GTPases
Journal Title: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Volume: 11
ISSN: 1662-5102
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation  
Date Published: 2017-06-28
Start Page: Article number: 176
Copyright Statement: CC BY
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00176
Notes: This work was supported by IST Austria institutional funds; the European Union (FP7-CIG618444 to SH) and a program grant from the Human Frontiers Science Program (RGP0053/2014 to SH). CD was supported by a postdoctoral ISTFELLOW fellowship and CM was a postdoctoral fellow of the FWF Herta Firnberg programme.
Open access: yes (OA journal)