Investigations into cell polarity and trafficking in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana Dissertation Thesis

Author(s): Adamowski, Maciej
Advisor(s): Friml, Jiří
Title: Investigations into cell polarity and trafficking in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana
Affiliation IST Austria
Abstract: The thesis encompasses several topics of plant cell biology which were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Chapter 1 concerns the plant hormone auxin and its polar transport through cells and tissues. The highly controlled, directional transport of auxin is facilitated by plasma membrane-localized transporters. Transporters from the PIN family direct auxin transport due to their polarized localizations at cell membranes. Substantial effort has been put into research on cellular trafficking of PIN proteins, which is thought to underlie their polar distribution. I participated in a forward genetic screen aimed at identifying novel regulators of PIN polarity. The screen yielded several genes which may be involved in PIN polarity regulation or participate in polar auxin transport by other means. Chapter 2 focuses on the endomembrane system, with particular attention to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The project started with identification of several proteins that interact with clathrin light chains. Among them, I focused on two putative homologues of auxilin, which in non-plant systems is an endocytotic factor known for uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles in the final step of endocytosis. The body of my work consisted of an in-depth characterization of transgenic A. thaliana lines overexpressing these putative auxilins in an inducible manner. Overexpression of these proteins leads to an inhibition of endocytosis, as documented by imaging of cargoes and clathrin-related endocytic machinery. An extension of this work is an investigation into a concept of homeostatic regulation acting between distinct transport processes in the endomembrane system. With auxilin overexpressing lines, where endocytosis is blocked specifically, I made observations on the mutual relationship between two opposite trafficking processes of secretion and endocytosis. In Chapter 3, I analyze cortical microtubule arrays and their relationship to auxin signaling and polarized growth in elongating cells. In plants, microtubules are organized into arrays just below the plasma membrane, and it is thought that their function is to guide membrane-docked cellulose synthase complexes. These, in turn, influence cell wall structure and cell shape by directed deposition of cellulose fibres. In elongating cells, cortical microtubule arrays are able to reorient in relation to long cell axis, and these reorientations have been linked to cell growth and to signaling of growth-regulating factors such as auxin or light. In this chapter, I am addressing the causal relationship between microtubule array reorientation, growth, and auxin signaling. I arrive at a model where array reorientation is not guided by auxin directly, but instead is only controlled by growth, which, in turn, is regulated by auxin.
Publication Title: IST Dissertation
Degree Granting Institution: IST Austria  
Degree Date: 2017-06-02
DOI: 10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_842
Notes: I would like to thank all members of Friml lab, past and present, for the nice and scientifically stimulating atmosphere, and I would like to thank Prof. Jiří Friml for his endless patience.
Open access: yes (repository)