A new species of tapir from the Amazon Journal Article


Author(s): Cozzuol, Mario A; Clozato, Camila L; Holanda, Elizete C; Rodrigues, Flávio H; Nienow, Samuel; De Thoisy, Benoit; Redondo, Rodrigo A; Santos, Fabrício R
Article Title: A new species of tapir from the Amazon
Affiliation IST Austria
Abstract: All known species of extant tapirs are allopatric: 1 in southeastern Asia and 3 in Central and South America. The fossil record for tapirs, however, is much wider in geographical range, including Europe, Asia, and North and South America, going back to the late Oligocene, making the present distribution a relict of the original one. We here describe a new species of living Tapirus from the Amazon rain forest, the 1st since T. bairdii Gill, 1865, and the 1st new Perissodactyla in more than 100 years, from both morphological and molecular characters. It is shorter in stature than T. terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) and has distinctive skull morphology, and it is basal to the clade formed by T. terrestris and T. pinchaque (Roulin, 1829). This highlights the unrecognized biodiversity in western Amazonia, where the biota faces increasing threats. Local peoples have long recognized our new species, suggesting a key role for traditional knowledge in understanding the biodiversity of the region.
Keywords: biodiversity; Amazon; cladistics; genetics morphometry; new species; Tapirus
Journal Title: Journal of Mammalogy
Volume: 94
Issue 6
ISSN: 00222372
Publisher: Oxford University Press  
Date Published: 2013-12-01
Start Page: 1331
End Page: 1345
Copyright Statement: CC BY-NC-ND
URL:
DOI: 10.1644/12-MAMM-A-169.1
Notes: This work received grants from Fundação O Boticário (FBPN), CNPq, and FAPEMIG from Brazil, and JAGUARS program (hinders: Kwata non-governmental organization (NGO), Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, and Labex Centre d'Etude de la Biodiversité Amazonienne) of Kwata NGO (www.kwata.net). We thank J. Patton (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California) for providing data and measurements of tapir skulls from his institution, initial comments, and advising on early stage of this manuscript; J. Vianna (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile) and A. A. Nascimento (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) for participation and discussion in the initial stages of this work; C. Pedraza (Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia), A. Tapia (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador), M. R. Garcia (Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia), O. Ramirez (Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru), and A. G. Silva (University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, Canada), who provided some samples of Neotropical Tapirus (de Thoisy et al. 2010); the San Diego Zoo, San Diego, California, which provided a sample of T. indicus; L. Avilla (Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, UNIRIO), who lent us 2 camera-traps; M. Marmontel (Instituto Sustentável Mamirauá, Tefé, Brazil), P. Médici (Tapir Specialist Group, www.tapirs.org), and C. Maria Jacobi (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), who helped to improve the manuscript text; and L. Emmons (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.), who provided many comments and English review of the final text. We thank the biology student G. Braga, who kindly made the life drawings of the male and female specimens of T. kabomani in Supporting Information S6 and S7.
Open access: yes (OA journal)