The Chara Genome: Secondary complexity and implications for plant terrestrialization Journal Article

Author(s): Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; de Vries, Jan; Buschmann, Henrik; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Ullrich, Kristian K; Haas, Fabian B; Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Becker, Dirk; Lang, Daniel; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Rombauts, Stephane; Wilhelmsson, Per K I; Janitza, Philipp; Kern, Ramona; Heyl, Alexander; Rümpler, Florian; Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Clay, John M; Skokan, Roman; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kagoshima, Kiroshi; Schijlen, Elio; Tajeshwar, Navindra; Catarino, bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J; Saltykova, Assia; Bonnot, Clemence; Breuninger, Holger; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Radhakrishnan, Guru V; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Chang, Caren; Karol, Kenneth G; Hedrich, Rainer; Ulvskov, Peter; Glöckner, Gernot; Delwiche, Charles F; Petrášek, Jan; Van de Peer, Yces; Friml, Jiří; Beilby, Mary; Dolan, Liam; Kohara Y; Sugano S; Fujiyama A; Delaux P M; Quint M; Theißen G; Hagemann M; Harholt J; Dunand C; Zachgo S; Langdale J; Maumus F; Van Der Straeten D; Gould S B; Rensing S A
Article Title: The Chara Genome: Secondary complexity and implications for plant terrestrialization
Affiliation IST Austria
Abstract: Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii; comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene families, with three cases of particular note: genes effecting tolerance to reactive oxygen species (ROS), LysM receptor-like kinases, and transcription factors (TFs). Transcriptomic analysis of sexual reproductive structures reveals intricate control by TFs, activity of the ROS gene network, and the ancestral use of plant-like storage and stress protection proteins in the zygote. The draft genome of Chara braunii reveals many plant-like features important for colonization of land that evolved in charophytic algae and therefore prior to the earliest land plants.
Keywords: Reactive oxygen species; Transcriptional regulation; Chara; charophyte; phragmoplast; Phragmoplastophyta; phytohormones; plant evolution; streptophyte
Journal Title: Cell Press
Volume: 174
ISSN: 00928674 (ISSN)
Publisher: Cell Press  
Date Published: 2018-07-12
Start Page: 448
End Page: 464.e24
DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.06.033
Notes: Financial support was provided by MEXT & JSPS KAKENHI (17020008 to Y.K., Y.S., and S.S.; 20017013, 22128008, 15H04413, and 24370095 to T.N.; 22770083, 24570100, and 15K07185 to H.S.; and 221S0002 to A.T., A.F., Y.S., and S.S.); a Hyogo Science and Technology Association grant to H.S.; the DFG (GO1825/4-1 and CRC1208 to S.B.G., VR 132/1-1 to J.d.V., SFB 944 to H.B. and S.Z., FOR964 to D.B. and R.H., and SFB 924 to D.L.); MEYS CR project (LO1417 to S.V., R.S., and J.P.); the Carlsberg Foundation and the Villum Foundation’s Young Investigator Programme to J.H.; the LRSV laboratory (ANR-10-LABX-41) to P.-M.D.; Gent University to D.v.d.S.; Research Foundation Flanders (G.0317.17N to D.v.d.S. and PhD fellowship 1S17917N to L.V.); ERC Advanced Grants (EVO500 to L.D., ETAP to J.F., and EDIP to J.L.); the Leibniz Association to M.Q.; and the NSF (DEB-1020660 and DEB-1036466 to K.G.K., MCB1714993 to C.C., and DEB 1036506 to C.F.D.).
Open access: no